The atmosphere may just look like one vast blue thing above, but a lot happens up there. These include the Moon (sodium gas), Mercury (sodium gas), Europa (oxygen), Io (sulfur), and Enceladus (water vapor). Troposphere. The Earth's atmosphere is an extremely thin sheet of air extending from the surface of the Earth to the edge of space. The presence oxygen began to appear apparently from being released by photosynthesizing algae. 004 - The AtmosphereIn this video Paul Andersen explains how the atmosphere surrounds the planet. The ionosphere increases in thickness and moves closer to the Earth during daylight and rises at night allowing certain frequencies of radio communication over a greater range. Other astronomical bodies such as sun, moon, Mercury, etc have known atmospheres. Atmosphere definition, the gaseous envelope surrounding the earth; the air: a weather balloon rising high into the atmosphere. Surface gravity differs significantly among the planets. Dry air from Earth's atmosphere contains 78.08% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and traces of hydrogen, helium, and other "noble" gases (by volume), but generally a variable amount of water vapor is also present, on average about 1% at sea level.[8]. This signifies a shift from a reducing atmosphere to an oxidizing atmosphere. An atmosphere is the layers of gases surrounding a planet or other celestial body. Like the rest of the planet, the atmosphere of Saturn is made up approximately 75% hydrogen and 25% helium, with trace amounts of other substances like water ice … Venus's atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide with thick clouds of sulfur, which render the surface too hot to support any known form of life. The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and other gases (1%) that surrounds Earth. It is measured with a barometer. The thermosphere extends from 85 km to the base of the exosphere at 400 km and contains the ionosphere, a region where the atmosphere is ionized by incoming solar radiation. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Auroras are caused by the bombardment of solar electrons on oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the atmosphere. Essentially, the atmosphere is is a collection of gases that makes the Earth habitable. The troposphere begins at the surface and extends to between 7 km at the poles and 17 km at the equator, with some variation due to weather. Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), about an alternative idea about the atmosphere’s origin, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. When meteoroids do impact, the effects are often erased by the action of wind. The atmosphere is very thin compared to the size of the Earth. This article is about an atmosphere of a celestial body. The density of the atmosphere decreases outward, because the planet’s gravitational attraction, which pulls the gases and aerosols inward, is greatest close to the surface. When in the part of its orbit closest to the Sun, Pluto has an atmosphere of nitrogen and methane similar to Triton's, but these gases are frozen when it is farther from the Sun. So, no matter where you look, you see the scattered blue light. The Earth is a sphere with a roughly 8000 mile diameter; the thickness of the atmosphere is about 60 miles. For example, the large gravitational force of the giant planet Jupiter retains light gases such as hydrogen and helium that escape from objects with lower gravity. Here on Universe Today we have a great article about an alternative idea about the atmosphere’s origin. The factors studied were staff attitude, atmosphere, timing (service), and food. [3] Oxygen is used by most organisms for respiration; nitrogen is fixed by bacteria and lightning to produce ammonia used in the construction of nucleotides and amino acids; and carbon dioxide is used by plants, algae and cyanobacteria for photosynthesis. Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude due to the diminishing mass of gas above. Frost and precipitations, which depend on the atmospheric composition, also influence the relief. We've arranged the synonyms in length order so that they are easier to find. Objects that have no atmosphere, or that have only an exosphere, have terrain that is covered in craters. The atmosphere is a gaseous envelope (with suspended liquids and solids) that surrounds the Earth and is held in place by gravity. Atmospheres have dramatic effects on the surfaces of rocky bodies. An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if the gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. The atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% water vapor, and a minute amount of other … The first atmosphere came into being as a result of a major rainfall over the entire planet that caused the build up of a major ocean. Conversely, studying the surface of the Earth leads to an understanding of the atmosphere and climate of other planets. Lighter molecules move faster than heavier ones with the same thermal kinetic energy, and so gases of low molecular weight are lost more rapidly than those of high molecular weight. During the day, it prevents a sudden increase in the temperature of the earth and prevents the heat to escape to the outer space during the night. Because the troposphere is the lowest atmosphere layer, it contains 75 percent of the atmosphere’s mass. The atmospheres of the planets Venus and Mars are primarily composed of carbon dioxide, with small quantities of nitrogen, argon, oxygen and traces of other gases. The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, retained by Earth's gravity, surrounding the planet Earth and forming its planetary atmosphere. The blue color of the sky is due to Rayleigh scattering which means as light moves through the atmosphere, most of the longer wavelengths pass straight through. [7], The composition of Earth's atmosphere is largely governed by the by-products of the life that it sustains. This region consists of layers or shells of gases. Oxygen showed major ups and downs until reaching a steady state of more than 15%. The second atmosphere began to develop around 2.7 billion years ago. The atmosphere is a protective layer that safeguards the earth from the harsh conditions of the solar system. Over the vast history of Earth there have been three different atmospheres or one that has evolved in three major stages. The original atmospheres started with a rotating disc of gases that collapsed to form a series of spaced rings that condensed to form the planets. For the scientific journal, see, Layer of gases surrounding an astronomical body held by gravity, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Earth's Atmosphere Composition: Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon and CO2", "On Atmospheric Loss of Oxygen Ions from Earth Through Magnetospheric Processes", "Why an intrinsic magnetic field does not protect a planet against atmospheric escape", "Scientists Detected An Incoming Asteroid The Size Of A Car Last Week - Why That Matters To Us", "What Is The Atmosphere Like On Other Planets? The atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% water vapor, and a minute amount of other trace gases like argon, and carbon monoxide. The effects of reentry can be felt at 120 km. Unsurprisingly, diners at all levels reported that food was the most important factor in their decision to recommend a restaurant, but the atmosphere was a major consideration, at least for the upscale and luxury dining groups. [6] As a result, craters are rare on objects with atmospheres. The atmosphere of Earth is composed of nitrogen (about 78%), oxygen (about 21%), argon (about 0.9%), carbon dioxide (0.03%) and other gases in trace amounts. The ozone layer high in the Earth’s atmosphere blocks much of this radiation from reaching the surface. The planet's atmospheres were then modified over time by various complex factors, resulting in quite different outcomes. Atmosphere, the gas and aerosol envelope that extends from the ocean, land, and ice-covered surface of a planet outward into space. Definition of Atmosphere. The atmosphere on Mars may be much thinner than on Earth, but it remains intact enough to cause weather, clouds, and wind. Without an atmosphere, the planet has no protection from meteoroids, and all of them collide with the surface as meteorites and create craters. Each of the layers has a different lapse rate, defining the rate of change in temperature with height. The exosphere begins variously from about 690 to 1,000 km above the surface, where it interacts with the planet's magnetosphere. While the atmosphere becomes thinner the higher you go, there is no clear line demarcating the atmosphere from space; however, the Karman line , at 100 km, is often regarded as the boundary between atmosphere and outer space. For Earth's atmosphere, see, "Atmospheric environment" redirects here. Check out the NASA page about the Earth’s atmosphere. This is where the International Space Station orbits. Earth's atmosphere is a jacket of gases that surrounds our planet. Since a collection of gas molecules may be moving at a wide range of velocities, there will always be some fast enough to produce a slow leakage of gas into space. The atmosphere is divided into 5 major zones. Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and sulfur have been detected in the planet's inflated atmosphere.[9]. For such a model atmosphere, the pressure declines exponentially with increasing altitude. 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