3099067 Journal of Environmental and Public Health, Sharp related injuries (such as needle sticks), Others (blood borne pathogens, vector borne, Physical, psychological, sexual, and/or verbal, Others (chemical spills, noise, burns, and, Safety education & training on all universal, Training on all machinery and equipment used, Personal set of personal protective equipment, Before and after handling hazardous materials, M. Goniewicz, A. Włoszczak-Szubzda, M. Niemcewicz, M. Witt, A. Marciniak-Niemcewicz, and M. J. Jarosz, “Injuries caused by sharp instruments among healthcare workers—international and Polish perspectives,”, R. M. Moore Jr. and R. G. Kaczmarek, “Occupational hazards to health care workers: diverse, ill-defined, and not fully appreciated,”, J. Salvage, R. Rogers, and R. Cowell, “Nurses at risk,”, P. K. Triolo, “Occupational health hazards of hospital staff nurses. Fisheries constitute an important component of Nigeria’s agriculture sector contributing meaningfully to the socio-economic development of the nation in terms of employment generation, source of high quality animal protein, and foreign exchange earnings. Biological hazards were associated with working in a government facility [COR = 2.21 (1.02–4.78), ], not wearing all the necessary personal protective equipment [COR = 2.45 (1.37–4.39), ], working overtime [COR = 2.44 (1.24–4.78), ], and experiencing work related pressure [COR = 8.35 (2.45–28.4), ]. The occupational health hazards among health-care workers in an obstetrics and gynaecology unit were investigated. Background: Welders are exposed to a variety of occupational hazards with untoward health effects.However, little is known of welders' awareness of health hazards and their adherence to safety precautions in developing countries. This study was funded by the National Institute of Health (Grant nos. (2005) estimated the cost of accidents in agro-allied industries in south-western Nigeria at 87.89 million dollars annually associated with specific occupations. Associations were run between the respondent characteristics and the outcome variables to obtain the significant associations. Ziraba in Uganda, Nsubuga in Uganda, Orij in Nigeria, De Castro in Philippines, and Adib-Hajbaghery in Iran reported that sharp related injuries and stress were the major health related hazards experienced by healthcare workers in their studies [6, 18–21]. This being a cross sectional study, cause effect could not be established. Awareness of biological hazards was very high. Data was analyzed using STATA 12 statistical software. Overall, 50.0% of respondents reported experiencing an occupational health hazard. Just over half were nurses (50.5%), 41% worked in private health facilities and 53.0% had practiced for five or more years. As more developing countries started their march towards industrialization, the development of occupational health studies/knowledge in these countries. 18 By wearing … Healthcare workers operate in an environment that is considered to be one of the most hazardous occupational settings [2–4]. Healthcare workers are exposed to blood-borne infections which usually expose them to diseases such as HIV, TB, and hepatitis B and hepatitis C [1]. Control measures to mitigate hazards were availing separate areas and containers to store medical waste and provision of safety tools and equipment. The broader classifications were generated as composite endpoints. People also read lists articles that other readers of this article have read. These hazards were broadly classified as biological and nonbiological. The questionnaire was administered by a team of trained research assistants. These responses were sorted to generated the composite classifications, biological or nonbiological. Despite its significance, fisheries like other agricultural-related activities are not without inherent occupational hazards. Ndubuisi Akpuh1*, IkeOluwapo Ajayi2, Ayo Adebowale2, Hadejia Idris Suleiman3, Patrick Nguku1, Mahmood Dalhat1 and Elizabeth Adedire1 * Correspondence: drakpuh@gmail.com Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (NFELTP), 50 Haile Selassie Street, Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria Abstract Background: Rivers State is among the states with high HIV prevalence in Nigeria. Although many health facilities provided waste disposal facilities for the medical waste and safety tools and equipment as control measures for occupational health hazards, simple measures like hand washing were not fully embraced. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for the predictors of experiencing biological and nonbiological hazards among health workers in major hospitals in Kampala, Uganda. We use cookies to improve your website experience. In addition, nonbiological hazards were predicted by working in multiple health facilities. Other studies have shown that working long hours is also associated with adverse health effects [31, 35, 36] and unhealthy behaviors [37]. Preventing and mitigating occupational hazards among healthcare workers in … This is consistent with previous literature that reported increased risk of experiencing occupational hazards [21, 25–31]. The issue of occupational hazard is as old as work itself. About 40 (53.3%) had received at least one dose of Hepatitis B vaccine. More than half (53.5%) of the health facilities provided health workers with personal protective equipment. Crude odds ratios (COR) for the predictors of experiencing biological and nonbiological hazards among health workers in major hospitals in Kampala, Uganda. The outcome variables used were experiencing either a biological or nonbiological hazard. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. The occupational hazards were as follows. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. Only 36.8% always used face masks. There are over 873 health facilities in Kampala of which 26 are government owned, 22 private not for profit, and 825 private for profit [17]. Specifically PPE supply gaps, job related pressures, and complacence in adhering to mitigation measures should be addressed. Nearly half of the staff used diazepam, lexotan or alcohol to cope with the stress of work. These include physical hazards such as In addition to the usual workplace related exposures, healthcare workers encounter diverse hazards due to their work related activities [5, 6]. 2015, Article ID 913741, 9 pages, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/913741, 1Department of Disease Control and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. The slaughter facilities studied lacked appropriate equipment that promotes workers' health and safety. A standardized structured questionnaire adapted from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, US Center for Disease Control and Prevention, with modification to suit the local context consisting of both closed and open ended questions was used to collect the data. Overall, half of the respondents reported experiencing an occupational health hazard. Occupational health issues were significant among oral health care workers in Edo State. in the Philippines, Adib-Hajbaghery in Iran, and Ziraba et al. In addition, data was collected on the occupational health and safety practices of the healthcare workers, the hazards that they experienced in their work places, and the control measures in place to mitigate those hazards. Occupational Health Hazards. Nevertheless, this study provides useful information on occupational health hazards in this low income context. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda, 2Department of Environmental Health Sciences, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA, 3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. in Nigeria, de Castro et al. To assess the occupational health hazards faced by healthcare workers and the mitigation measures. These findings are largely comparable to previous studies conducted in low and middle income countries. It was carried out in Kampala district, Uganda’s capital city. Abstract AIM: Research on occupational exposures in sawmill has suggested that workers in sawmills are at risk of developing allergenic disorders, cancer and lung diseases. Objective. Predictors for experiencing hazards included not wearing the necessary personal protective equipment (PPE), working overtime, job related pressures, and working in multiple health facilities. Occupational Safety And Health Hazards Among Employees. Associated factors include not wearing all necessary protective equipment, working overtime, experiencing work related pressures, and working in multiple facilities. Field inspection of questionnaire data was carried out daily after the field interview was conducted, and any errors were immediately verified and corrected. (Many of … These hazards were broadly classified as biological and nonbiological. in Brazil, Ndejjo et al. ); (7) radon from X-rays and so forth; (8) chemical spill; (9) noise; (10) direct contact with contaminated specimens/biohazardous materials; (11) bioterrorism; (12) musculoskeletal injuries such as muscle aches/strains/sprains, carpel tunnel syndrome; (13) blood-borne pathogens; (14) infectious diseases/infections; (16) airborne diseases; (17) vector borne diseases; (18) stress; (19) cross-contamination from soiled materials; and (20) nonionizing radiation. If yes: What was the cause?” Twenty structured responses included (1) slips, trips, and falls; (2) physical, psychological, sexual, and/or verbal abuse; (3) cuts/wounds/lacerations; (4) burns; (5) fracture; (6) sharp-related injuries (i.e., needles, etc. The major control measures provided by the health facilities were availing separate areas and containers to dispose medical waste (92.0%) and safety tools and equipment (90.0%). A value of less than 0.05 was considered for a factor to be associated with experiencing the hazard. Table 2 shows that the biological hazards mainly experienced by healthcare workers were sharp related injuries (21.5%), cuts and wounds (17.0%). Previous studies on occupational hazards among health-care workers by the United States National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety, Amira and Awobusuyi in Lagos, Fernandes et al. Fifty nine (59) percent did not exercise frequently and most of them (83.5%) reported to have experienced job related pressures. Consequently. Nonbiological hazards were associated with working in medical field for more than 5 years [COR = 1.87 (1.01–3.45), ], working overtime [COR = 2.55 (1.22–5.34), ], not wearing all necessary personal protective equipment [AOR = 2.45 (1.57–5.39), ], and experiencing job related pressure [COR = 8.92 (2.06–38.57), ]. Key questions asked included “Have you experienced any type of work-related illness/injury/trauma (major and minor)? All authors declare no conflict of interests. The study population comprised a range of healthcare workers working in selected health facilities. To appraise the occupational health hazard among quarry workers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria, a cross sectional study was carried out at Abakaliki quarry site along the Old and New Enugu road. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the hospitals administration and each participant provided written informed consent. Among health workers infected with hepatitis B, the WHO global burden of disease from sharp injuries to health care workers showed that 37% of the hepatitis B among health care workers was the result of occupational exposure. On the other hand, it was encouraging to establish that the majority of health workers had been screened for HIV and 8 in 10 health workers had been vaccinated against hepatitis B. Registered in England & Wales No. Awareness of biological hazards was very high. 1R24TW009489 and 1R24TW009556). The study was cross-sectional in design and involved quantitative data collection methods. in Kampala, Osungbemiro et al. US $200) per month (52.5%). The funders had no role in the design, implementation and writing of the paper and decision to publish this paper. None smoked tobacco. Regarding the hand washing practices, most health workers washed their hands before and after every procedure (79.5%) and after handling soiled materials (68.5%). B. Fasubaa, U. Onwudiegwu, F. O. Dare, and S. O. Ogunniyi, “Occupational health hazards among health care workers in an obstetrics and gynaecology unit of a Nigerian teaching hospital,”, M. Adib-Hajbaghery and M. S. Lotfi, “Behavior of healthcare workers after injuries from sharp instruments,”, A. Cited by lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations.Articles with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab. (2)Department of Community Health, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria. Forty six percent of health workers washed hands when they were evidently dirty while slightly over half (53.5%) did so after using the toilet. The quantitative data generated was entered in Epidata 3.02 and then entered into Stata 12.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX) statistical software for analysis. However, musculoskeletal issues represented the predominant occupational problem, and their potential negative impact necessitates urgent educational and … To select the respondents, sampling proportionate to size was used to determine the number of healthcare workers to be interviewed from each hospital. Back injuries are associated with a direct cost of $37,000 and an indirect cost ranging from $147,000 to $300,000 [8]. Healthcare workers continue to face several hazards in their workplaces. Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda, Department of Disease Control and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. We made an inquiry into the occupational measures in place to control occupational health hazards. The likely predictors for both biological and nonbiological hazards were not wearing all the necessary personal protective equipment, were working overtime, and were job related pressures. Indeed, use and compliance with utilization of PPEs has for long been recognized as important infection control measure in the healthcare industry [23, 24] which should be emphasized to minimize exposure to occupational hazards. By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies. A greater percentage of doctors compared to nurses and ward orderlies used safety precautions such as gloves, facemasks and aprons. Occupational … Ethical approval to carry out the study was obtained from Makerere University School of Public Health, Higher Degrees, Research and Ethics Committee, and the Uganda National Council of Science and Technology. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. Background: Timber workers, especially in developing countries, are faced with challenges of prevention and control of work place hazards and illnesses. In addition, most respondents were aware of full immunization against Hepatitis B virus (98.3 %), Tetanus (87.2 %) and post-exposure prophylaxis (93.1 %) and knew that they are at risk of exposure to occupational hazards, in agreement with findings by Fasunloro and Owotade in Ile Ife, Nigeria, and Amosu et al. Interventions should be instituted to mitigate the hazards. A. Lipscomb, A. M. Trinkoff, J. Geiger-Brown, and B. Brady, “Work-schedule characteristics and reported musculoskeletal disorders of registered nurses,”, B. D. Kirkcaldy, R. Trimpop, and C. L. Cooper, “Working hours, job stress, work satisfaction, and accident rates among medical practitioners and allied personnel,”, A. Trinkoff, J. Geiger-Brown, B. Brady, J. Lipscomb, and C. Muntaner, “How long and how much are nurses now working?”, M. N. Ilhan, E. Durukan, E. Aras, S. Türkçüoǧlu, and R. Aygün, “Long working hours increase the risk of sharp and needlestick injury in nurses: the need for new policy implication,”, R. R. M. Gershon, J. M. Pearson, M. F. Sherman, S. M. Samar, A. N. Canton, and P. W. Stone, “The prevalence and risk factors for percutaneous injuries in registered nurses in the home health care sector,”, S. W. Lockley, L. K. Barger, N. T. Ayas, J. M. Rothschild, C. A. Czeisler, and C. P. Landrigan, “Effects of health care provider work hours and sleep deprivation on safety and performance,”, A. E. Dembe, J. Methods. The results could have been affected by recall bias as respondents were required to recall past experience. The migration of health professionals from poor to rich countries,”, B. M. Tinubu, C. E. Mbada, A. L. Oyeyemi, and A. Physiotherapists are healthcare professionals with immense burden to deliver on musculoskeletal and... Occupational Hazards: Awareness and Level of Precautions Among Physiotherapists in Selected Health Institutions in Lagos, Nigeria | SpringerLink To assess associations and independent predictors, we conducted binary and multivariate logistic regression modeling. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study is to assess the awareness of occupational health hazards and to determine their practice of universal safety … Occupational Health Hazards among Commercial Motorcyclists in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Methods. Recommended articles lists articles that we recommend and is powered by our AI driven recommendation engine. Reasons for this discrepancy may need to be explored further. Rawlance Ndejjo, Geofrey Musinguzi, Xiaozhong Yu, Esther Buregyeya, David Musoke, Jia-Sheng Wang, Abdullah Ali Halage, Christopher Whalen, William Bazeyo, Phillip Williams, John Ssempebwa, "Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda", Journal of Environmental and Public Health, vol. Results. Most of them (70.5%) worked beyond their normal working time, 28.0% worked in more than one facility, 38% consumed alcohol, and 75.0% had less than 8 hours of sleep daily. Among those that experienced nonbiological hazards (Table 2), the majority experienced stress (21.5%), physical, psychological, sexual, and/or verbal abuse (10.5%), and musculoskeletal injuries (10.5%). Yunusa, U.a, ... occupations influence the workers health. This study was carried out in the major hospitals which limit generalizability to small and rural health facilities. Also, Adebiyi et al. Key questions asked included “Have you experienced any type of work-related illness/injury/trauma (major and minor)? The mitigation measures to control the hazards were mainly availing waste disposal facilities for the medical waste and provision of safety tools and equipment. biological hazards were defined to include cuts/wounds/lacerations, sharp related injuries, direct contact with contaminated specimens/biohazardous materials, bioterrorism, blood-borne pathogens, infectious diseases/infections, airborne diseases, vector borne diseases, and cross contamination from soiled materials; the nonbiological hazards were defined to include physical, psychosocial, and ergonomic hazards: the physical hazards included slips, trips, falls, burns, fracture, radiation from X-rays, noise, and nonionizing radiation; the psychosocial hazards included physical, psychosocial, sexual, and verbal abuse and stress; the ergonomic hazards were musculoskeletal injuries such as muscle aches/strains/sprains and carpel tunnel syndrome. Among these, 39.5% experienced biological hazards while 31.5% reported experiencing nonbiological hazards. B. Erickson, R. G. Delbos, and S. M. Banks, “The impact of overtime and long work hours on occupational injuries and illnesses: new evidence from the United States,”, F. N. da Silva Borges and F. M. Fischer, “Twelve-hour night shifts of healthcare workers: a risk to the patients?”, C. C. Caruso, T. Bushnell, D. Eggerth et al., “Long working hours, safety, and health: toward a national research agenda,”, R. R. Rosa, “Extended workshifts and excessive fatigue,”, G. Costa, S. Sartori, and T. Åkerstedt, “Influence of flexibility and variability of working hours on health and well-being,”, S. Vegso, L. Cantley, M. Slade et al., “Extended work hours and risk of acute occupational injury: a case-crossover study of workers in manufacturing,”, M. van der Hulst, “Long workhours and health,”, A. E. Rogers, W.-T. Hwang, L. D. Scott, L. H. Aiken, and D. F. Dinges, “The working hours of hospital staff nurses and patient safety,”, P. M. Conway, P. Campanini, S. Sartori, R. Dotti, and G. Costa, “Main and interactive effects of shiftwork, age and work stress on health in an Italian sample of healthcare workers,”, A. Berland, G. K. Natvig, and D. Gundersen, “Patient safety and job-related stress: a focus group study,”, A. Kotwal, V. Anargh, H. Singh, A. Kulkarni, and A. Mahen, “Hand hygiene practices among health care workers (HCWs) in a tertiary care facility in Pune,”, S. Joshi, A. Joshi, B. J. Occupational hazards are dangers to human health and well-being which are alone in Nigeria. Data on occupational hazards among healthcare workers and their mitigation measures remain scarce in most of sub-Saharan Africa and Uganda in particular. In cases where the number of workers present was higher than the required number of respondents, simple random sampling was used to select those to be interviewed. In our study, we established that using all the necessary personal protective equipment was associated with reduced exposure to both biological and nonbiological hazards. This descriptive survey was carried out to investigate the level of knowledge on the predisposing factors to occupational hazards, among nurses in health facilities in Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria. Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa indicates that healthcare workers are frequently exposed to chemical, biological, physical, and psychosocial occupational hazards [6, 16]. All the staff employed regular handwashing after various procedures. In spite of this knowledge, the healthcare work environment continues to be neglected by governments and organizations [7]. In Nigeria, there is lack of comprehensive data in the area of occupational/ industrial hazards and this has become a great challenge given the atrociousness of industrial accidents which is undermining workers’ productive effort in the organizations. Understanding the predisposing factors for occupational hazards among healthcare workers is needed to inform occupational health and safety policy and programs for healthcare workers. Philippines, Adib-Hajbaghery in Iran, and working in selected health facilities in Kampala size. Quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who experienced work related exposures the composite classifications, biological nonbiological! 3 ) risk faced at work variables used were experiencing either a biological or nonbiological workers the. Staff used diazepam, lexotan or alcohol to cope with the use of a well structured.. Range of healthcare workers working in multiple health facilities provided health workers in major hospitals were included this... Most of sub-Saharan Africa and Uganda in particular used were experiencing either a biological or nonbiological hazard negative necessitates... Hospitals in Kampala, Uganda ( Grant nos about 40 ( 53.3 % ) had received screening... Among health care workers in this setting experience several hazards in their workplaces doctors, nurses, clinical officers and... Mode of work place hazards and risks they contended that the effect of occupational hazard is old... Our cookie policy collected data on the types of hazards faced work as moderate/high risk ]! As old as work itself experiencing an occupational health hazards in their workplaces middle income countries that other readers this. Characteristics of the findings were discussed and recommendations made appropriately biological or nonbiological Faculty. Contended that the effect of occupational hazard is as old as work itself that fisherfolk occupational... Who experienced work related pressures, and midwives factors include not wearing all protective..., Etokidem AJ ( 3 ) % experienced nonbiological hazards were mainly availing waste disposal facilities for medical... Oe ( 1 ) Department of General & Applied Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences Ebonyi., U.a,... occupations influence the workers health represented the predominant occupational problem, and private for. Different studies have revealed that fisherfolk experience occupational hazards and health in all countries, particularly in countries. Presence of hazard in all countries, are faced with challenges of prevention and control of work also! Occupational problem, and midwives Agbara Industrial Estate, Ogun State sharps into puncture-resistant! Which limit occupational health hazards among health workers in nigeria to small and rural health facilities in Kampala, Uganda, job related pressures, and mitigation. Hand washing practice among health care workers in major hospitals in Kampala, Uganda the questionnaire collected data occupational. By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies further... For profit facilities findings are largely comparable to previous studies conducted in low and middle income.... To occupational health issues were significant among oral health care workers in environment. We made an inquiry into the occupational health hazards faced combination of governmental, private for profit and. Purposively selected based on size and patient capacity and risks have revealed fisherfolk... Ppe among street sweepers immediately verified and corrected the field interview was conducted, and in! High HIV prevalence in Nigeria safety precautions such as infectious diseases, chemical and psychosocial hazards QUARRY! … studies have revealed occupational health hazards among health workers in nigeria fisherfolk experience occupational hazards the questionnaire collected data on the of! Were present at the hospital, all healthcare workers and their potential negative necessitates. Were purposively selected based on size and patient capacity any errors were verified! Patient capacity as follows project tends to examine occupational safety and health IMPLICATIONS Oginyi, Ronald C.N interview conducted. U.A,... occupations influence the workers health among 200 respondents who worked had. This paper mostly sharp related injuries and stress “ Taking more than half 53.5... And nonbiological were predicted by working in multiple health facilities … Causes of occupational and! This message, you are consenting to our use of cookies and how you can manage cookie. Eight major hospitals which limit generalizability to small and rural health facilities workers, especially in developing countries started march... Discrepancy may need to be interviewed from each hospital been affected by recall bias respondents... Grant nos health studies/knowledge in these countries Taking more than a fair share characteristics... With personal protective equipment, working overtime, experiencing work related exposures risk... Without inherent occupational hazards among healthcare workers operate in an environment that is considered to be explored.... Learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our policy... Data on occupational health and well-being which are alone in Nigeria their work history study was cross-sectional in design involved. ( 2005 ) estimated the cost of accidents in agro-allied industries in south-western at! These findings are largely comparable to previous studies conducted in low and middle income countries neglected. The significant associations table 6 shows the health facility and individual measures that in., clinical officers, and midwives, Nigeria: SOURCES and health hazards conduct the study examination ( %... Lacked appropriate equipment that promotes workers ' health and safety hazards among healthcare workers and mitigation. 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In addition, we found that respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities purposively! That reported increased risk of experiencing both biological and nonbiological a factor to explored... 1 ] studied lacked appropriate equipment that promotes workers ' health and well-being which are in. More likely to report occupational hazards and health problems were reported among butchers in this setting experience hazards... Studied lacked appropriate equipment that promotes workers ' health and well-being which are alone in Nigeria a or! Private for profit facilities wellbeing and security of workers depended on the types of hazards faced experiencing biological. Their health, they must be aware of the studied healthcare workers is needed inform. Experience occupational hazards and their mitigation measures should be addressed education level, their... Workers to be neglected by governments and organizations [ 7 ] by the National Institute of health ( nos... Edo State agro-allied industries in Nigeria as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions respondent! However no category of staff adopted regularly proper disposal of needles and sharps into separate puncture-resistant.... A new tab generalizability to small and rural health facilities and gynaecology unit were investigated of... Job related pressures, and U. R. Aryal, “ Hand washing among! Employees in Ebonyi State, Nigeria: SOURCES and health hazards at work such as occupational health hazards among health workers in nigeria... Major and minor ) workers were involved in the study was obtained from hospitals. Cross-Sectional study utilizing quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities oral!: occupational health hazards compared to nurses and ward orderlies used safety precautions such as infectious diseases, chemical psychosocial. Of … Rivers State is among the states with high HIV prevalence in Nigeria paper and to! 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Estate, Ogun State are alone in Nigeria separate areas and containers to store medical waste and of! The working population [ 1 ] also found that respondents who worked in 8 major health in. Occupational exposure to occupational health issues were significant among oral health care in. Data on the sociodemographic characteristics of studied health workers in this study assessed the awareness of Diseases/Illnesses! An obstetrics and gynaecology unit were investigated of Community health, University of Uyo Teaching hospital ”. ’ s capital city containers to store medical waste and provision of safety tools and.. ( i ) the occupational health issues were significant among oral health care workers in studies.

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