30 cm shall be observed. now i am working as a Electrical Site Engineer in construction field in Saudi Arabia sir help me to survive in this position i need to know the calculation voltage drop and current rating and short circuit current. Dear Jignesh , Thanks a lot …. Process flow for this stud… I want to know how we can do the calculation for DC cable sizing. Dura Trench Utility and Cable Trenches are the first utility trench on the market to offer fully integrated channel strut cast into the body of the trench. Ground Temperature is approximate 35 Deg. Trench is now part of the OBO Bettermann group giving us access to their excellent portfolio of products – click on the OBO logo above for more information. Cable Laying Detail: Cable is directed buried in Ground in trench at the depth of 1 meter. He has published numbers of Technical Articles in “Electrical Mirror”, “Electrical India”, “Lighting India”,”Smart Energy”, “Industrial Electrix”(Australian Power Publications) Magazines. To decide 95 Sq.mm cable, cable selection condition should be checked. It is a project i am working on. Can you check this calculation did in cable selection 2… it seems to be wrong.. Voltage Drop of Cable= (1.732x139x(0.41×0.8+0.074×0.6)x200x100)/(415x1x1000)=2.2%, Dear Sir can we calculate voltage drop for Flexible wires. How to find out or know the Short Circuit capacity of cable which should be higher than the NO. He wants to Share his experience & Knowledge and help technical enthusiasts to find suitable solutions and updating themselves on various Engineering Topics. Hi, I’m trying to ascertain the size of 3 core wired armoured cable I will need to keep voltage drop to a minimum level to ensure an existing 100am 240V 18KVa supply is still maintain at that level 300m away from the supplies supply….on-line calculators suggest I might need a 125mm/6 inch cable? how we can derived it?? Submitted By: Ananya Majumdar (An10709) Submitted On: 26 Nov 2013. And how you calculate the current capacity of those cables ?? Trench stands for an extended excavation that is separated from pits or basements. ( Log Out /  Trench Excavation Estimate trench excavation - online calculator . Current Capacity of 95 Sq.mm cable is 200Amp,Resistance=0.41Ω/Km and Reactance=0.074 mho/Km. ... 5.5 Cable trench design . Dear sir i wanna purchase electrical notes in pdf form kindly let me know how can i get it . that is the reason, I have upload some abstract of IS code.not IS code itself. Privacy Statement - then take the depth of the excavation including the sub-base from the electrical detail plan as well as the width of the trench. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. you can not reproduce,republish or communicate any of the content , including files downloadable from this website, without the permission of the copyright owner.The use of this content on any other websites breaches copyright Act. I was looking for such article from long time. He is Freelancer Programmer of Advance Excel and design useful Excel base Electrical Programs as per IS, NEC, IEC,IEEE codes. Keywords: acceptance testing, cable, cable installation, cable selection, communication cable, 0 DESIGN OF CABLE TRENCH TYPE -A-A A) ... Design of the BaseSlab: Load calculation Wall load Second wall Self wt of slab Load due to cable SAND FILLING 1 Total Pmax Moment calculation at base slab 48.059 kn/mtr = = = = 0.200 x 0.200 x 2.125 x. Bayt.com is the leading job site in the Middle East and North Africa, connecting job seekers with employers looking to hire. i like to know how do you calculate cable current carrying of a cable. If we Select 2 No’s of Run than Voltage drop is 2.8% which is within limit (5%) but to use 2 no’s of Run of cable of 70 Sq.mm Cable is not economical so It is necessary to use next higher size of Cable. There are several national norms on the minimum bending angle, for instance UNE 20435/2 in Spain. For 3.5C*120 sq.mm lt cable for 1 cable and 2 cable, I want 4 core (multistrand core) copper wire pvc insulated cable which should carry 150 amps current 440v , ph. I always indicate Reference Code Where it is available or Applicable. These utility trenches can be used for electrical, hydraulic, water, sewer, gas, low voltage, high voltage, chemical piping, or any other process that requires a cable trench or utility trench. Please upload HT cable sizing calculations? Kind regards Mr Hibbert. Nature of Soil is Damp Soil. Answer added by ernie rodriguez, Fire Suppression Designer/Estimator/Project Manager , Kidde Canada Inc. Answer added by james lapiad operio operio, Site Engineer. For proper trench drain design you can use the tables below to determine the depth the trench drain or slot drain should be for any given flow rate. ( Log Out /  2) I have 63 amp 4 pole MCB so what is my per phase current capacity. To decide 95Sq.mm Cable, Cable selection condition should be checked. Measure the width and depth of the trench at equally spaced intervals along its length. 10 x cable external diameter for multiple bending. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Hi.. I am very thankfull to you in knowing the cable size calculation from the site and i want to bring to your notice regarding a typing mistake. 2. cable surface.Sub-cabling permits neat and simple formation of branch legs from the main cable and can be used to aid in identifying wire groups. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. as short circuit capacity of the cable is taken from the table, Plz Sir clear my concept about my sent issues. I can’t understood how to get current capacity of cable.u take direct value of 79 and95 sq mm cable rattling in dalution, I have 60kw three phase Solar 415 volts power supply from my house and I need to put 30HP water pump on water source which is 2500m away. Calculated Width of Cable Tray as per Calculation=No of Layer of Cable X No of Cable Tray Run X Width of Cables; Width of Cable Tray as per Calculation=1X1X493 =493 mm; Checking Depth of Cable Tray; Actual depth of Cable Tray = No of Layer of Cable X Maximum Diameter of Cable; Actual depth of Cable Tray=1X68.6 =68.6mm; Checking Weight of Cable Tray Therefore, Standards & Specifications Department of National Grid Saudi Arabia formed a team of experts to study the possibility of standardizing/unifying cable design to three sizes; 1200sqmm, 2000sqmm and 2500sqmm. Dear sir, Here Voltage drop for 70 Sq.mm Cable (5.8%) is higher than Define Voltage drop (5%) so either select higher size of cable or Increase no of Cable Runs. as we are using 95sqmm cable it should be “Total De rating current of 95 Sq.mm cable=200*0.93=187 Amp”. Membership No:F-1264873 ,M-1473586.He has more than 19 years experience in Transmission -Distribution-Electrical Energy theft detection-Electrical Maintenance-Electrical Projects (Planning-Designing-Technical Review-coordination -Execution). Thank You So much for all your great work. Sir, i will be very grateful if you please let me know from where do i collect this system S.C. capacity . Voltage Drop of Cable= (1.732x139x(0.57×0.8+0.077×0.6)x200x100)/(415x1x1000)=5.8%. He wants to Share his experience & Knowledge and help technical enthusiasts to find suitable solutions and updating themselves on various Engineering Topics. c) From cable reel to cable tray, the cable is fed from the top of the reel to main-tain required curvature. Please let me know about allowable voltage drop between PCC panel to MCC panel? Go to “Electrical Notes” Page. Calculation: Consumed Load= Total Load x Demand Factor Abstract: The design, installation, and protection of wire and cable systems in substations are covered in this guide, with the objective of minimizing cable failures and their consequences. Title Page 1 FOREWORD 2 CONTENTS 3 1.0 INTRODUCTION 5 2.0 OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE 6 3.0 PLANNING STAGE 7 3.1 Desk Study 7 3.2 Timing and Location 7 3.3 Statutory Requirements 8 4.0 DESIGN STAGE 9 4.1 Temporary Support Design 9 4.2 Design Considerations 10 4.2.1 Loading 10 4.2.2 Drainage 10 4.2.3 Groundwater Control 11 4.2.4 Existing Man-Made Slope … Excavation of Trench How to calculate Trench Volume George Properties Excavation I here by just want to make an appeal to you Sir to Upload I.S. Some examples may be laying cable duct using trench-less technologies (Controlled horizontal drilling, pipe-jacking, microtunneling), crossing river beds, installation of cable support structures for decks and viaducts (including design, supply and installation of systems for compensation of thermal expansion). For plastic jacketed cables, typical wall thickness is 10% of the unjack eted diameter or 0.010” minimum. how to measure HT and LT cable depend upon load voltage drop in HT and LT cable Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Voltage drop calculation: The single phase AC voltage drop is calculated as: $$V_{d1\phi}=\dfrac{I L (2 Z_c)}{1000}$$ Where I is the load current, L is the distance, and $$Z_c$$ is the cable impedance in O/km. Learn how your comment data is processed. All the information and technical things has to be transparent and to be made easy to understand, so that the beginners and technicians can enter easily into the subject to explore new things and to make better & safe the existing! Design of RCC Trench Design of RCC Trench. Utilities around the world are going for optimization of utilized equipment (reduce capital and operational cost). armed Cable. 23. thank you very much for your great support. Thanks for sharing the most demanding calculation i am azeez Electrical Engineer from chennai tamilnadu. Total De rating Current of 70 Sq.mm Cable= 170×0.93 =159 Amp. CPT ElectricalEngineers LIKE ALL EEP OUT PUTS. Cookie Policy. How to select the value of cosǾ & sinǾ in the formula. Oldcaslte Infrastructure trench components have superior chemical resistance, strength, low water absorption, and substantial freeze/thaw resistance. I once again thank you for all your sincere efforts! Let’s Select 3.5Core 70 Sq.mm cable for Single run. In case study to it was written as “Total De rating Current of 70 Sq.mm Cable= 200×0.93 =187 Amp”. February 8, 2014 HDD DRILLING RIG PROPOSED DIRECTIONAL DRILL ROUTE PROPOSED OPEN CUT TRENCH ROUTE ROAD LEVEL RIVER/STREAM BED LEVEL GROUND LEVEL 1.All dimensions are in metre unless otherwise stated. Let’s Select 3.5Core 95 Sq.mm cable for Single run, S.C Capacity =8.2KA. Kindly reply me with your formula/equation of those cable’s phase and ground. ( Log Out /  Can you pls explain how 100 in the nominator( next to cable length) & 1000 in the denominator (next to no of runs ) arrives in the formula. which are sent to your email by me, 520 kw cu cable suitability sq mm of cable. We offer design engineering services incorporating Pre-Engineering Plan sets for transforming into the Conceptual Plan sets to ensure our technical approach will meet the necessary relevant local and International Standards with respect to equipment’s selection, Electrical & Civil design … In the correction factor, K3 stands for what? Please can you explain this (1.732) value stands for. *How can I calculate busbar size on behalf of Fault Current in Control Panels??? If You find this content in any other site,it makes the page you are viewing an infringement of the copyright. Which armored cable is best to use and what is the minimum voltage drop, I am try to buy Voltage drop calculation please help me. Service Entrances On the initial design, the trench length must be determined, (see Section 6.8 for details). The content in electricalnotes.wordpress.com is for personal, non-commercial use only. My load is 4836a three phase tell me standrd size of cable for each phase length is 100feet. 3 CONTENTS Page No. system short circuit capacity? Thanks for sharing valuable information in detail…. He has published numbers of Technical Articles in “Electrical Mirror”, “Electrical India”, “Lighting India”,”Smart Energy”, “Industrial Electrix”(Australian Power Publications) Magazines. Would You mind to explain against “No. Thank you very much Jignesh sir for your all hard work and perseverance that you have put to make all electrical engineers knowledgeable and aware about the practical Electrical enegry or power sector…. if the project has already started and you knew exactly where the underground cables will run, i suggest that you measure the actual length of the proposed run. DOC NO: M2011EP008A-091. please can you send me problems associated with 11kv feeder, and ways of proffering solutions. My question is how to calculate Short circuit capacity at that point ? Get Fresh Updates On your job applications, and stay connected. Installation Of Cable Trench Covers & Cable Protection Tiles. is same, thank u sir for a great article, but it is very difficult to calculate the resistance and reactance of the cable…….sir plz add the formulas for how to calculate the reistance and reactance of the cable. Thanks a lot sir for your efforts to put us through. Design of RCC Trench Design of RCC Trench. Cement-bound sand . Terms of Use - ( Log Out /  A minimum distance of 30 cm shall be observed between the lowest cable in the instrument trench and the highest cable in the electrical trench. thanks for all hard work u took for excellent work which u have undertook in educating and making perfect electrical engineer like us. Dear Sir , Greetings on my behalf to Your good self . He is Technical Blogger and Familiar with English, Hindi, Gujarati, French languages. 1) I have 3.5 core 35sqmm Alu. Cabling Design 2.1 General For example, in a 12-foot-long trench, you may choose to record the dimensions every 3 … (Cable S.C Capacity (8.2KA) is higher than System S.C Capacity at that Point (6.0KA) =O.K) He is Presently associate with one of the leading business group as a Deputy Manager at Ahmedabad,India. Total De rating Current of 70 Sq.mm Cable= 200×0.93 =187 Amp. He is Technical Blogger and Familiar with English, Hindi, Gujarati, French languages. © 2000-2020 Bayt.com, Inc. All Rights Reserved. CSA . (1) Cable De rating Amp (187 Amp) is higher than Full Load Current of Load (139 Amp) =, (2) Cable Voltage Drop (2.2%) is less than Defined Voltage drop (5%) =, (3)No of Run of Cable (1) >= (139A / 187A =0.78) =, (4) Cable S.C Capacity (8.2KA) is higher than System S.C Capacity at that Point (6.0KA) =, Method for Installation of Cable & Wire (Part-1), How to Design Efficient Street Lighting-Part-4, How to Design Efficient Street Lighting-Part-3, How to Design Efficient Street Lighting-Part-2, How to Design Efficient Street Lighting-Part-1, Quick Reference Lighting Power Densities, Calculation of Crippling (Ultimate Transverse) Load on Electrical Pole, Various Factors for Illumination Calculations, Calculate Transformer Regulation & Losses (As per Transformer Name Plate), Type of Lighting Bulbs (Shapes and Sizes) Part-5, Type of Lighting Bulbs (Shapes and Sizes) Part-4, Type of Lighting Bulbs (Shapes and Sizes) Part-3, Type of Lighting Bulbs (Shapes and Sizes) Part-2, Type of Lighting Bulbs (Shapes and Sizes) Part-1, Methods of Earth Resistance Testing (Part-3), Methods of Earth Resistance Testing (Part-2), Methods of Earth Resistance Testing (Part-1), Method for Installation of Earthing Strip, Calculate Size of Anchor Fastener for Water Pipe Support. Sir , normally, when i do this especially for excavation deeper than1 meter (others do this at2 meters deep), i always make sure to include a degree cut allowance from the two vertical sides of the trench for soil erosion if it not made of hard-compact soil. I need busbar calculation formula for control panels applications. 1.4.5 In cases where cables have to cross underground pipelines or sewers a vertical clearance of min. RETAINING WALL DESIGN (BS 8002:1994) TEDDS calculation version 1.2.01.06 Ultimate limit state load factors Dead load factor f_d = 1.4 Live load factor f_l = 1.6 Earth and water pressure factor f_e = 1.4 Factored vertical forces on wall Wall stem wwall_f = f_d hstem twall wall = 40.5 kN/m UR PAGE IS VERY VERY HIGHLY SUPERB. Rating: 16 Description. Membership No:M-1473586.He has more than 16 years experience in Transmission -Distribution-Electrical Energy theft detection-Electrical Maintenance-Electrical Projects (Planning-Designing-Technical Review-coordination -Execution). We try to design cable trenches as straight as possible, avoiding pronounced angles. *, *VIVEKANAND JHA (**Design & Costing Engg.)*. Posted on May 19, 2012 by Francesco Miceli. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. 5.20. listing I PROUD ABOUT UR KNOWLEDGE SIR .THANK U, Sir please give the correct formula how to calculate the size of the cable. Downloads: 115. Design Drawings and Profiles 2.7 132kV Underground Cable Work No. if this is for tendering purposes, measure the total length of the trench as shown on the plan x depth as shown on the detail section of the cable trench x average width as explained above. Calculation Reference RCC Trench Reinforced Concrete Drainage Structural Design Calculation Preview. Moreover, certain doubts are there which needs to be clarified for better understanding. Estimate trench excavation - online calculator. for single run you can use single core rite why used 3.5 core instead of single core. and there is another thing i would like to point out, this cable S.C. capacity which you have given as 8.2 KA, is this correct? How do financial managers calculate the average tax rate. I will suggest why put them in hard copy people will buy them in a hurry. a. But please in this calculation of: Full Load Current= (KVAx1000) / (1.732xVoltage). will it be the same procedure to calculate? if the soil is made of hard material, then it is just a matter of multiplying the total length x height x width....calculation of rates depends on your total equipment hours x hourly rate plus your total man-hours x their hourly rates excluding those of  the equipment operator if they were already included in the rental rate of the equipment assuming of course that they were rented. B.E ( electrical ) was not sent - check your email address to follow this and....Thank u, sir if you please let me know about allowable drop. To main-tain required curvature panel to MCC panel: Consumed Load= total Load x Demand Factor Estimate excavation... There are several national norms on the award-winning platform from the electrical detail plan as well as the width the! Power system Control ), you are commenting using your WordPress.com account calculation: Consumed Load= total Load x Factor! Fields to become self sufficient the electrical detail plan as well as width. Team trench we have a strong, experienced team at trench who are all committed to providing best... Why we don ’ t need to apply derating factors to calculate the average tax rate be determined, see. Explain this ( 1.732 ) value stands for an extended excavation that is from! Are using 95sqmm cable it should be checked other site, it will achieve financial savings as a Manager! I here by just want to make an appeal to you sir to Upload I.S connecting job with... ( 1.732x139x ( 0.57×0.8+0.077×0.6 ) x200x100 ) / ( 1.732×415 ) = 139Amp cosǾ sinǾ... System Control ), you are viewing an infringement of the leading job site in correction. I have Upload some abstract of is code.not is Code itself =5.8 % with 11kv feeder, and is. Trench to establish the distance between measurements Knowledge sir.THANK u, sir please the. Electrical detail plan as well as the width of the excavation including the sub-base from the top of the eted! Engineers ( MIE ) and CEng, India click an icon to Log:... Temperature field calculation of: Full Load Current= ( 100×1000 ) / ( )... The voltage drop between PCC panel to MCC panel and North Africa, connecting seekers. Formula cable trench design calculation to find suitable solutions and updating themselves on various electrical Engineering.... To … • IEC 60287 - Electric cables – calculation of UG cable laying detail: cable 170Amp... Personal cable trench design calculation non-commercial use only An10709 ) submitted on: 26 Nov 2013, India to put us through kindly... - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and design of Technical Applications my is... My sent issues for personal, non-commercial use only mention with references of codes. To calculate the size of flexible wire for power & lighting loads ( Continued…. ).... 1.732 ) value stands for what conductor can carry continuously without exceeding its temperature.! Is standard on net Sq.mm cable, cable selection guide not known drain design from electrical! Value of cosǾ & sinǾ in the formula buried in Ground in trench at the transformer switchgear/... ( 1.732×415 ) = 139Amp Load= total Load x Demand Factor Estimate trench excavation - calculator. I calculate busbar size on behalf of Fault current in Control panels Applications various Engineering Topics we! Is a good instance of the unjack eted diameter or 0.010 ” are not Subcables may be individually jacketed 4836a... Employers looking to hire - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and design Excel... On this issue whether which is correct calculation of cable cable trench design calculation tunnel is also a trench drain design search the. Load= total Load x Demand Factor Estimate trench excavation - online calculator good self Rupees or $! Ways of proffering solutions cost ) ways of proffering solutions the reason, i want to an! Requirements for cable trenches are detailed below with Clause the soil with temperature... Per phase Amp to make an appeal to you sir to Upload I.S Plz sir clear my about! Your Knowledge with us make an appeal to you sir to Upload I.S in case study to it was as. To navigate the Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and design useful Excel base Programs... Cable jacket walls below 0.010 ” are not Subcables may be used for the same i once again thank for... Problems associated with 11kv feeder, and ways of proffering solutions job seekers with looking. ) 24 to arrive at actual voltage drop of Cable= ( 1.732x139x ( 0.57×0.8+0.077×0.6 ) x200x100 ) / 1.732×415. Selection guide: M-1473586.He has more than 16 years experience in Transmission -Distribution-Electrical Energy theft cable trench design calculation Projects. In Control panels Applications per phase current capacity An10709 ) submitted on: 26 Nov 2013 of of... The soil with ambient temperature base electrical Programs as per is, NEC, IEC, codes... To hire * * design & Costing Engg. ) *, India me cable. Have Upload some abstract of is code.not is Code itself of utilized equipment ( reduce capital and cost... Single core wire for power & lighting loads, certain doubts are there which to... Cables, typical wall thickness is 10 % of the leading job site in the formula ( reduce and! Google account 2012 by Francesco Miceli not Subcables may be used for the temperature field calculation of cable / ”! Utilities around the world are going for optimization of utilized equipment ( reduce capital and operational )... Cable current carrying of a cable for any Load, what happen if use! That a conductor can carry continuously without exceeding its temperature rating ( Line voltage x of. Cable Ampacity is the current capacity of 95 Sq.mm cable, cable selection guide to guide cable. Calculation formula for the duration of its use to establish the distance measurements! Water absorption, and ways of proffering solutions the best customer care, non-commercial use only u! System S.C. capacity useful Excel cable trench design calculation electrical Programs as per is, NEC, IEC, IEEE.. Viewing an infringement of the unjack eted diameter or 0.010 ” are not Subcables may be used for same!, strength, low water absorption, and ways of proffering solutions of a cable why put them in hurry. As straight as possible, avoiding pronounced angles current that a conductor can carry continuously exceeding... Actual voltage drop i.e are there which needs to be clarified for better understanding of Cable= ( (... Cable for single phase of: Full Load Current= ( KVAx1000 ) (! The Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and design Technical. Details ) was looking for such article from long time size for DC system to establish the distance measurements. Needs to be clarified for better understanding trenches are detailed below with Clause vertical clearance of min the electrical plan... Of Fault current in Control panels????????... Z to arrive at actual voltage drop ” as well as the width depth... Behalf to your good thinking of sharing the Knowledge!, and it is totally to. ( 0.57×0.8+0.077×0.6 ) x200x100 ) / ( Line voltage x No of Runx1000 ) 2.1 General trench stands what... Any other site, it will achieve financial savings as a result of this design optimizing makes page! Also be used for the same and how you calculate the average tax rate main-tain required curvature ambient... Technical enthusiasts to find suitable solutions and updating themselves on various electrical Engineering Topics ernie rodriguez, Fire Designer/Estimator/Project! Can carry continuously without exceeding its temperature rating Indian Rupees or us$ / Change ), you viewing. Was not sent - check your email by me, 520 kw cu cable suitability mm! Upload/Share is standard on net in cases where cables have to cross Underground pipelines or a. Good self exceeding its temperature rating Section 6.8 for details ) doubts are there which needs to be for! 60287 - Electric cables – calculation of: Full Load Current= ( KVAx1000 ) (. Online calculator ) = 139Amp, Hindi, Gujarati, French languages busbar. Capacity and what is total capacity of the leading business group as a Deputy Manager at Ahmedabad, India Dura! Greetings on my behalf to your email addresses the region 's top employers trenches as straight as,... Rcc trench Reinforced Concrete Drainage Structural design calculation Preview Excel Programme titled “ calculate cable current carrying a... Amp ” attached that can help with trench drain design site Engineer around the world going! Please give the correct formula how to select the value of cosǾ & in., Notes on various electrical Engineering Topics along its length Middle East and North Africa, connecting job with. Into the tray entrances on the initial design, the trench length must be,... 200×0.93 =187 Amp ” always indicate Reference Code where it is available or Applicable enthusiasts to find suitable and! Reference RCC trench Reinforced Concrete Drainage Structural design calculation Preview cables have to cross Underground pipelines or sewers a clearance. Abstracts, Notes on various Engineering Topics cable sizing flexible wire for power & loads... ) 24 listed on the material during final bending is not characterised by alternating.. Be clarified for better understanding in the correction Factor, K3 stands what. Of: Full Load Current= ( 100×1000 ) cable trench design calculation ( 1.732xVoltage ) and stays in this of. Can i calculate busbar size on behalf of Fault current in Control panels Applications factors to calculate the that... Job seekers with employers looking to hire - Privacy Statement - Cookie Policy experienced. Upload some abstract of is code.not is Code itself the system short circuit capacity 3.5... New posts by email of this design optimizing i like to know how..., kindly post it… either at the transformer or switchgear/ service entrance its normal rating buried in Ground in at! Cable=200 * 0.93=187 Amp ” by alternating stress me standrd size of cable which should checked! Vivekanand JHA ( * * design & Costing Engg. ) * below with.., you are viewing an infringement of the leading business group as a Deputy at. So.. why we don ’ t need to apply derating factors the Factor...

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